Evolutionary Timeline

Winter 2014

A 40-year perspective on the industry and ICPI


Evolutionary Timeline


Photo 1 of Z pavers 19 1969

Joseph Peitz imports a paver manufacturing machine from Germany to New Jersey to produce 1 million sf (93,000 m2) of “Z” pavers for Roosevelt Island, NY. The machine leaves New Jersey when the project is built.

Photo 2 Wolf Mueller 1973

KNR Concrete is started by Wolf Mueller in Toronto, later purchased and renamed Unilock.

Photo 3 Massey Coal Terminal 1982

610,000 sf (56,700 m2) of interlocking concrete pavement opens at the Massey Coal Terminal in Newport News, VA. The pavers are subject to high loads from coal storage piles and abrasive loads from steel-tracked bulldozers.

Photo 4 North Bay ON

North Bay, ON, places 150,000 sf (13,900 m2) in downtown streets and sidewalks. This project confirms the ability of concrete pavers to survive harsh winter conditions on municipal streets.

North Bay, Ontario – A Case Study in City Design and Engineering with Interlocking Concrete Pavements

North Bay Twenty Years Later – A Case Study of Proper Design and Construction of Interlocking Concrete Pavement

Photo 5 Dayton street 1985

The first mechanically installed, public street of 11,000 sf (1,000 m2) is constructed with interlocking concrete pavement in a historic district.

Tecumseh Street 20-Year Retrospective


The Concrete Paver Institute (CPI) is formed within NCMA to raise industry identity and provide resources for manufacturers, designers and contractors.

Photo 6 Port of Baltimore 1990

The Port of Baltimore, MD, places 230,000 sf (21,300 m2) of pavers in a wharf area that would eventually grow to 2 million sf (185,800 m2) of pavers.

Port of Baltimore Case Study

The ASCE Journal of Transportation
publishes “Structural Design of Concrete Block Pavements” by Gonzalo Rada, David Smith, John Miller and Dr. Matthew Witczak. This paper demonstrates the application of AASHTO flexible pavement design to interlocking concrete pavements. This approach was initially developed by Dr. Witczak.

CPI hosts a focus group of prominent U.S. and Canadian pavement engineers (including Dr. Witczak) who propose steps for institutionalizing interlocking concrete pavement. Their report provides the framework for the next several decades: develop design guides; test methods, specifications and maintenance guides; do research and demonstration projects; and promote.

Photo 6a Shackel book cover Dr. Brian Shackel, a University of New South Wales, Australia, researcher on interlocking concrete pavements, publishes Design and Construction of Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements through Elsevier (230 pages). The book summarizes his and other’s research from the late 1970s through the 1980s. The book addresses many positive aspects of pavement performance. He later promotes interlocking concrete pavement in North America.
Photo 7 San Antonio San Antonio, TX, places 1 million sf (93,000 m2) of interlocking concrete pavement in streets and sidewalks in its downtown. The pavement is subject to constant bus traffic.

Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport places 260,000 sf (24,100 m2) of concrete pavers in cross taxiways, saving the airlines over $4 million in delays.

Technical Paper: A Review of Specification Requirements with Respect to Time on the Concrete Blocks Used for Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport

The first sales school is held for industry product representatives. Over 25 schools are held in the coming years including ones on advanced technical topics.


CPI issues CAD drawings of various concrete paver applications on 3.5 in. floppy disks.


CPI supports bedding sand research by the Royal Military College of Canada. Results provide test methods and acceptance criteria for bedding sands in high traffic/load applications.

Photo 8 book cover CPI issues its first installation training manual, Building Interlocking Concrete Pavements. The manual becomes the blueprint for an installer certification program developed some years later.

Concrete Paver Installer Course Manual – 8th Edition

NASA conducts skid resistance tests on interlocking concrete pavements using a B-737 aircraft tire in Langley, VA (25,000-lb wheel load). Skid resistance is similar to grooved concrete runway pavement. Dentated pavers provide additional structural lateral stability under high wheel loads and hard braking.


The Segmental Concrete Systems Association is formed in Chicago, IL, later renamed the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI). Sixty-six charter manufacturer, supplier and contractor members fund the upstart group.

Photo 9 first magazine cover 1994

The first issue of Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine is mailed to about 7,000 readers and featured 300,000 sf (27,900 m2) in Berth 30 at the Port of Oakland, CA.

Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine – Vol. 1, Issue 1

Port of Oakland – the largest block paving project in the western hemisphere

Technical Paper

The first ICPI annual meeting is held in Atlanta, GA.

ICPI logo EC ICPI releases a new logo to convey interlocking.


Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine first reports on permeable interlocking concrete pavements (PICP).


ICPI releases Pavespec software for structural design of interlocking concrete pavements that follows AASHTO flexible pavement design methods.

ICPI introduces an installer certification program with a comprehensive student manual, course materials and instructor training. Some 15,000 contractors take the course in the coming years.


The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute studies skid resistance of interlocking concrete pavements demonstrating characteristics similar to conventional pavements.


ICPI releases the first edition of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements – Design Specifications Construction Maintenance. Three more editions are released with the latest fourth edition in 2011.

The ICPI Foundation for Education & Research is created to advance the technical and educational industry subjects with an endowment goal of $5 million.

Photo 10 Port of Oakland 2001

Port of Oakland, CA, pavement construction begins on 5 million sf (464,500 m2) of interlocking concrete pavement on new container terminals at Berths 55-59.

Image of Port of Oakland

Case Study/Article

Technical Paper

Technical Paper


ICPI funds research by the University of Pittsburgh and the Veterans Administration to define interaction between different paver types on wheelchair vibration.


ICPI rolls out www.icpi.org.


ICPI hosts the 8th International Conference on Concrete Block Paving in San Francisco, CA, with over 400 delegates.

ICPI introduces Permeable Design Pro software for PICP hydrologic and structural design.


North Carolina State University completes PICP research that demonstrates positive infiltration performance and pollutant reductions.

The ICPI Foundation funds development of a website resource for landscape architecture students and professors. The site develops into www.paveshare.org.

ICPI launches Hardscape North America, a new trade show for the industry.


ICPI moves offices to Herndon, VA, and transitions to self-management. Staff increases to eight with an annual budget of $3 million.


ICPI rolls out commercial technician and PICP specialist courses.

Photo 11 EPA PICP parking lot The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency completes a permeable pavement parking lot at offices in Edison, NJ. The agency conducts long-term monitoring and maintenance.
Photo 12 ASCE standard cover 2010

The ASCE releases standard 58-10 Structural Design of Interlocking Concrete Pavement for Municipal Streets and Roadways. ICPI offers design software that follows this procedure.

The University of Waterloo completes crosswalk performance research and design guidelines. The University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center monitors PICP for two years on their campus that yields almost 100 percent infiltration of runoff.


ICPI rolls out the Advanced Residential Paver Technician course.

The U.S. Transportation Authorization Act, also known as MAP-21, includes a mandate for technology transfer and research on permeable pavements.

Photo 13 Charles City IA PICP street Like Chicago and its suburbs, Iowa towns use PICP for publicly owned streets and alleys as an integral part of infrastructure redevelopment projects. Green alleys are built in dozens of cities thanks to federal, state and local green infrastructure funding to reduce combined sewer overflows.

CoverArt Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine is redesigned and renamed Interlock Design.

The ICPI Foundation funds PICP structural and performance research projects in the U.S. and Canada.

The industry produces about 500 million sf (46.5 million m2) of pavers, slabs and grids, made by approximately 110 companies in the U.S. and Canada.

Supported by federal and state transportation departments, the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) Centers for Technology Transfer (T2) receive information on permeable pavements.

Photo 14 TS 18 cover ICPI completes its 18th Tech Spec technical bulletin on PICP construction. All 18 bulletins covering design, construction and maintenance topics are on www.icpi.org.   
The ICPI Foundation funds the development of product category rules (PCRs) for segmental concrete pavements.

After a five-year hiatus from the recession, ICPI hosts a school (with NCMA) for commercial sales representatives. The school is attended to capacity, indicating an upturn in this market.

Photo 15 New ICPI offices ICPI purchases space for new offices in Chantilly, VA. The new address is 14801 Murdock Street – Suite 230, Chantilly, VA, 20151. Canadian offices continue in Uxbridge, ON.